# How to Learn Statistics and Probability with PDF Statistics and Probability by Shahid Jamal

plots for all variables, along with the distribution of the sloth bear distribution for the selected model within the study area. the x-axis represents the percentage of the variables ranging from 0 to 1%, and y-axis represents the predicted probability of sloth bear occurrence.

## pdf statistics and probability shahid jamal.27

results are expressed as mean sd. differences between two groups were evaluated using two-sample t-test. differences between more than two groups were evaluated using anova test. distribution normality was evaluated using the kolmogorov-smirnov test. we also used roc curve analysis and area under the curve (auc) to evaluate the diagnostic values. the roc curve is a useful indicator to show the diagnostic performance of a diagnostic test. the auc is the probability that the diagnostic test will rank a randomly selected positive case higher than a randomly selected negative one. there are three ways to interpret auc: (1) auc value ranges from 0 to 1, where a value of 1 indicates a perfect diagnostic test and a value of 0.5 indicates a test with no better diagnostic performance than chance. (2) auc>0.75 is considered to be good, 0.75

results are expressed as mean sd. differences between two groups were evaluated using the two-sample t-test. differences between more than two groups were evaluated using anova test. distribution normality was evaluated using the kolmogorov-smirnov test. we also used roc curve analysis and area under the curve (auc) to evaluate the diagnostic values. the roc curve is a useful indicator to show the diagnostic performance of a diagnostic test. the auc is the probability that the diagnostic test will rank a randomly selected positive case higher than a randomly selected negative one. there are three ways to interpret auc: (1) auc value ranges from 0 to 1, where a value of 1 indicates a perfect diagnostic test and a value of 0.5 indicates a test with no better diagnostic performance than chance. (2) auc>0.75 is considered to be good, 0.75