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Jackson Cook
Jackson Cook

Review Of Radiological Physics.54



Inter-observer variability in anatomical contouring is the biggest contributor to uncertainty in radiation treatment planning. Contouring studies are frequently performed to investigate the differences between multiple contours on common datasets. There is, however, no widely accepted method for contour comparisons. The purpose of this study is to review the literature on contouring studies in the context of radiation oncology, with particular consideration of the contouring comparison methods they employ. A literature search, not limited by date, was conducted using Medline and Google Scholar with key words: contour, variation, delineation, inter/intra observer, uncertainty and trial dummy-run. This review includes a description of the contouring processes and contour comparison metrics used. The use of different processes and metrics according to tumour site and other factors were also investigated with limitations described. A total of 69 relevant studies were identified. The most common tumour sites were prostate (26), lung (10), head and neck cancers (8) and breast (7).The most common metric of comparison was volume used 59 times, followed by dimension and shape used 36 times, and centre of volume used 19 times. Of all 69 publications, 67 used a combination of metrics and two used only one metric for comparison. No clear relationships between tumour site or any other factors that may influence the contouring process and the metrics used to compare contours were observed from the literature. Further studies are needed to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each metric in various situations.




Review of Radiological Physics.54



Dose calculation algorithms play an important role in radiation therapy and are even the basis for optimizing treatment plans, an important feature in the development of complex treatment technologies such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. We reviewed the past and current status of dose calculation algorithms used in the treatment planning system for radiation therapy. The radiation-calculating dose calculation algorithm can be broadly classified into three main groups based on the mechanisms used: (1) factor-based, (2) model-based, and (3) principlebased. Factor-based algorithms are a type of empirical dose calculation that interpolates or extrapolates the dose in some basic measurements. Model-based algorithms, represented by the pencil beam convolution, analytical anisotropic, and collapse cone convolution algorithms, use a simplified physical process by using a convolution equation that convolutes the primary photon energy fluence with a kernel. Model-based algorithms allowing side scattering when beams are transmitted to the heterogeneous media provide more precise dose calculation results than correction-based algorithms. Principle-based algorithms, represented by Monte Carlo dose calculations, simulate all real physical processes involving beam particles during transportation; therefore, dose calculations are accurate but time consuming. For approximately 70 years, through the development of dose calculation algorithms and computing technology, the accuracy of dose calculation seems close to our clinical needs. Next-generation dose calculation algorithms are expected to include biologically equivalent doses or biologically effective doses, and doctors expect to be able to use them to improve the quality of treatment in the near future.


Pace your study with monthly assignments that optimize your time spent on the various study resources, featuring detailed Yelp-style reviews of every RSNA physics module, updated annually. Also includes reading assignments in Radiology Simplified, MCQ Checkpoint assignments, and lecture viewing assignments.


"A welcome respite." - Reviews & Commentary, Radiology, 276:54-55 Radiology Simplified (Apple Books) is the most accurate review of Core-relevant radiology physics anywhere. That's because our editorial process works continuously to eliminate black pearls based on feedback from the 1000+ resident physicians in radiology who've anchored their radiology physics study with this text in the United States and beyond. As an added bonus, the book includes 100+ high-yield clinical cases calibrated for the Core Exam, with diagnostic-quality images and cine clips. We've also published major revisions to reflect evolving practice recommendations like the ACR Contrast Manual. We've also added new content to reflect the growing Core Exam difficulty, including advanced topics in MRI. Best of all, updates are free for life. Visit Apple Books to learn more.


"Continued success." Nolan Kagetsu, MD / Residency Program Director - Diagnostic Radiology / Mount Sinai West We just got our results today: One was in the first quartile, 4 in the 3rd quartile and 2 in the top quartile! I wish Ram and Core Physics Review continued success. "Instrumental in my passing the Core Exam." Temilola Akinola, MD / Resident Physician - Diagnostic Radiology / Lahey Clinic The course (live and online) were definitely instrumental in my passing the Core Exam. Content was easy to understand and relevant. There were quite a number of questions that one had to answer based on inference but the break down you gave in the course made it easier to reason through those questions. Thank you for the time and effort you put into the work you - it is definitely making a difference. "Core Physics Review is a must." Christina Kim, MD / Resident Physician / Mount Sinai West Fantastic course, prepared me really well for one of the most difficult subjects of the exam. Core Physics Review is a must. "Safely pass the Core." Anonymous, MD / Resident Physician / University of Minnesota Smart way to learning imaging physics and safely pass the Core. "The whiteboard sessions are the best way to learn the fundamentals for physics." Scott Penny, MD / Resident Physician / Maricopa Medical Center - Phoenix Ram's course is the best comprehensive physics course out there for the Core Exam. The white board sessions are the best way to learn the fundamentals for physics. "Single best resource I used in my Core preparation." Jonathan Lewis, MD, MS / Resident Physician / University of South Florida This course was the single best resource I used in my Core preparation. I easily passed the physics and NIS sections thanks to this course! "Best thing you can do." Gary Ihnat, MD / Resident Physician / University of South Florida By far the best thing you can do for studying physics for the Core Exam whether you have a background or are starting from scratch. Thanks again, Ram! "Fantastic and essential." Victoria V. Villescas, MD / Resident Physician / University of Florida-Jacksonville Core Physics Review was fantastic and essential to my passing the ABR Core examination! Ram does a great job simplifying physics and making it a manageable topic. I strongly recommend this course. "Throughout the entire experience, Ram was himself invested in our success." Michael Morris, MD / Resident Physician / University of Maryland Medical Center Core Physics Review and Radiology Simplified were the perfect clinically focused radiology physics review for the Core. Ram is excellent at targeting the key elements of the physics material that are most relevant to our daily clinical practice in radiology. He provides a detailed study plan including online lectures and questions that help you to prepare for the in person review, which was MCQ rich. He stayed after class with me to personally go over some of the material that I had additional questions about. His commitment shows in the careful preparation of the material. His unique background as both a diagnostic radiologist physician and a doctorate in electrical engineering helps him to provide a perfect clinically oriented physics curriculum. "Physics was the must-pass section for this exam and you were an integral part of our success." Sumeet Bahl, MD / Resident Physician / Mount Sinai West I'm writing on behalf of the R4 class at Mount Sinai West to inform you that all 7 of us passed the Core. Your comprehensive approach through online lectures, Radiology Simplified, questions, and emphasis on certain RSNA modules was very helpful. Your quick responses to emails and the way you conducted the four-day review clearly showed your dedication. We're happy to say that our new R3s will be joining you in their prep as well. "Single best thing I did to prepare." Jake Feldhaus, MD / Resident Physician / Mayo Clinic Florida Just wanted to let you know that our class got good news today and we all passed the Core Exam! Everything you covered in the course was very helpful and high yield. Physics ended up being one of my highest scores and taking your course was the single best thing I did to prepare. Thanks again for all your help and keep up the great work! "Thanks to Core Physics Review I actually had a clue!" Brandon Stott, MD / Resident Physician / University of Minnesota I started from zero physics knowledge, followed the course outline and schedule from October and attended the review session in Palo Alto. I'm sure the course will only become more comprehensive in the years to come and will continue to see residents through this challenging and at first daunting section. "Not only did I feel prepared going in to the exam, I felt confident!" Anne Gunn, MD / Resident Physician / Madigan Army Medical Center I never thought I would be able to fully understand the core physics concepts until I started Core Physics Review.


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